Menopause is a natural process in women is characterized by decreased ovarian function resulting in decreased production of estrogen. Reduced estrogen leads to various problems, one of which increase the risk of heart disease. The decline in estrogen production causes disruption of blood fat metabolism so it will aggravate the blood lipid profile and oxidation in the body so vulnerable women suffering from coronary heart disease. The linkage is what encourages Diah Mulyawati Utari research doctoral studies in Human Nutrition Program, Graduate School (SPs), Bogor Agricultural University (IPB) and brought the benefits of tempeh for menopausal women.
Easily oxidized lipids in the body, resulting in the formation of lipid peroxidation characterized by increased malondialdehyde (MDA). High levels of MDA can be used as an indicator of free radicals in the body. Excess free radicals are risk factors for degenerative diseases such as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Lipid particularly in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), known as the bad cholesterol is the primary target of oxidation.
The occurrence of the K-LDL oxidation is one of the main factors of blood vessel blockage. To prevent this required the presence of antioxidants, one of which is the endogenous antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) which is the first defense against the oxidation process in the body. He said, in the last 10-12 years, research on the benefits of soy protein and isoflavones increased and depth, and proved that soy consumption not only improve some aspects of health in postmenopausal women, but also improve heart health.
The process of fermentation, so the levels of amino acids, fatty acids, and isoflavones in soybean is much higher than soybeans. Research has been conducted in the city of Bogor (Indonesia) with a total sample of 53 postmenopausal women. The menopausal women are given 160 grams of tempeh every day for four weeks. The amount is equivalent to four slices of tempeh size. Tempe is steamed for 10 minutes and then mixed with certain herbs so be ready to eat foods.
The criteria for the sample in this study were women who experienced menopause, menopause span of 1-5 years, one of the abnormal lipid profiles, not being sick or had a history of degenerative disease, not taking drugs and supplements, do not use estrogen therapy, instead of vegetarianism , and willing to comply with the study. Samples were captured via integrated active coaching post in the city of Bogor.
Analysis shows that food tempe highest amino acid content in tempeh is the highest fatty acid arginine and is linoleic acid. Tempe is also rich in isoflavones and relative levels can be maintained if the tempeh mixed with steaming (not frying).
Statistical test results showed that administration of 160 grams tempeh every day for four weeks can improve lipid profiles in decreased levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C (bad cholesterol), and triglycerides. tempeh may also increase the activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and MDA and decrease LDL oxidation. The results of this study indicate that significantly tempeh has the ability to reduce risk factors for coronary heart disease.
Public advised to increase consumption of tempeh every day on an ongoing basis, particularly in menopausal women as well as other groups who have a high risk of coronary heart disease. And to get the maximum effect for health, tempeh should be processed by steaming and frying by avoiding processing.